Agricultural Mushrooms Business

Mushrooms contain more protein than
fruits & vegetable. Mushrooms also have cholesterol. Apart from their
protein content, mushrooms can also be high in certain vitamins like B, C,
vitamin D, riboflavin, thiamine nicotinic acid. Also an excellent source of
iron, Potassium, and potassium along with folic acid, a component known for
improving the blood and avoidance deficiencies. Mushroom recommended as a
health food by Food and Agricultural Organisation of United Nations.

In India, a marginal farmer and small
manufacturing units produce Fifty percent of mushroom and the remaining
mushroom produce by industrial institutions. There are two types of mushroom
growers in India, seasonal farmers produce in small scale. While commercial
mushroom framer who takes production continue entire year in large scale. The
seasonal button mushroom growers are restricted to temperate regions like
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu, and Kashmir, hilly areas of Uttar Pradesh, hilly areas
in Tamil Nadu and North Eastern  areas
where farmers take 2-3 plants of button mushrooms at a year.

To commercial mushroom farming, required
heavy expenditure on the building infrastructure, purchase of machinery and
equipment, raw materials, labour and energy. In India there are various
government & NGO organization provide, provide mushroom cultivation
training. However, NRCM is pioneer institute provides training. Also Indian
government promoting mushroom cultivation hence they give subsidy under a
different scheme like national horticulture board, Ministry of food processing, Agricultural and
Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA).

To start mushroom farming following
Factors have to be considered to become successful in commercial mushroom production
business:

  1. The
    mushroom farm should be closer to the house of the farmer for successful
    Participation and monitoring purpose.
  2. Availability
    of lots of water in the farm.
  3. Easy
    accessibility to raw materials at competitive prices in the region.
  4. Simple
    access to labour at more affordable prices.
  5. Availability
    of power at competitive prices, as electricity is a significant input in
    mushroom cultivation.
  6. The
    farm should be from industrial pollutants such as chemical fumes.
  7. There
    should be provision for sewage disposal.
  8. There should be provision for future
    growth in the farm.

To
start White Button Mushroom Farming Follow These Steps:-

In India, the
favourable season for mushroom cultivation is October to march. Cultivation
Procedure has five main steps.

  1. Mushroom
    Spawn.
  2. Preparing
    of compost.
  3. Spawning
    of mulch.
  4. Casing
    soil.
  5. Harvesting of Crop.

Mushroom Spawn:-

Mushroom growing process start
form Spawn preparation. Spawn is planting material for mushroom cultivation
that is it is a seed of mushroom. For the preparation of mushroom spawn
required greater technical skill & investment mostly mushroom spawn produce
large institute. Mushroom grower import spawn from the renowned
source. Good Qualities mushroom spawn has following qualities.

  1. The spawn
    should be rapidly growing in the compost.
  2. Provide early
    pruning following casing.
  3. High yielding.
  4. It must create
    the greater grade of mushroom.

 Preparing of
compost:-

Compost is an artificially prepared
growth medium from which mushroom can derive essential nutrients necessary for
growth. There are two primary methods for compost preparation:

  1. Longer
    Method
  2. Short
    Method

Short Method takes less time to prepare
compost than longer method. Short Method requires more capital and resources than
longer method. The compost made by the short method is suitable for high
yielding mushroom production.

Longer Method:-

This is an outdoor procedure and takes
around 28 days in its conclusion with a total of seven turnings.

Materials are required for the longer
method is as follows.

Ingredient Weight
Wheat
straw
300
kg
Wheat
bran     
15
kg
calcium
ammonium nitrate
9
kg
Urea    4
kg
Muriate
of Potash
3
kg
Superphosphate           3
kg
Gypsum 20
Kg

To Prepare Compost:- The mixture of wheat straw or paddy
straw is placed for 1-2 days (24-48 hours) on the floor and spray water several
times in a day with a fixed time interval.

In this stage, the above Ingredient
except Gypsum is mixed well and make a 5-feet-wide, 5-foot-high stack. With
wooden box help or any other equipment in grow room. The length of the stack
depends on the amount of material, but the height and width should not be more
or less than the measurements written above and it kept as it is as for five
days. Water is spray as per the requirement of lower moisture in the outer
layers. The temperature of this stack in about two to three days gets around
65-70 ° C, which is a good sign.

Short Method:-

Compost prepared by Short method gives
the high-quality product, and there is very little chance of infections.

Ingredient weight
Wheat
straw
1000
kg
Chicken
manure
600
kg
Wheat
bran
60
kg
Urea 15
kg
Gypsum 50
Kg

This method is complete in two stages:

  1. Outdoor
    composting:-
  2. Mix Wheat straw with chicken manure and
    spray water. First turning start on the fourth day and create 45cm high heap.
  3. The seventh day start second turning
    wheat bran, urea and gypsum are add mix thoroughly and maintain inner
    temperature of the compost in between 70-75 ° C.
  4. third turning start on the eighth day
  5. The tenth day, compost is a transferred
    toward pasteurization tunnel and start second phase indoor composting.
  • Indoor
    composting:-

In this stage, pasteurization Process
carried out in a closed environment. Fill Compost in the pasteurization hole
and the moment the compost at the hole has stuffed the doors, and new air
damper is appropriately closed, and the blower is placed on for recirculation
of air @ 150-250 cubic meter/ 1000 pound compost/ hour.

The stage II indoor composting procedure
is complete in 3 phases:

  • Pre-peak
    heating point
    : - After about 12-15 hours of mulch
    filling, the temperature of compost begins climbing, and after 48-50° C is got,
    it needs to be kept for 36-40 hours together with the venting system.
    Ordinarily, such temperatures are achieved by self-production of heat from the
    compost mass with no steam injection.
  • Peak
    heat Point: -
    Increase the warmth of compost to 57-58° C by
    self-production of heat from parasitic activity if it’s not obtained. Injecting
    the live steam at the majority chamber and keep for 8 hours to guarantee
    effective pasteurization. New air introduced by launching of the fresh air
    damper into 1/6 or even 1/4 of its capacity and air socket also is exposed to
    the identical extent.
  • Post-
    peak heat Point: -
    Lower the temperature slowly to 48-52 °C and keep
    until no indications of ammonia have been found in compost. This can take 3-4
    times in a balanced formula. After the mulch is free of ammonia, complete clean
    air is brought on by opening the damper to the utmost capacity and cool the
    compost down to about 250C that’s considered as the favourable temperature for
    spawning.

Spawning:-

The seeds are a mix of the compost.  Before seeding, wash the utensils used in
seeding and seeding in 2% formalin solution and wash the hands of the person
working in the seedling with soap so that any infection can be avoided. After
this, add seed to 0.5 to 0.75 %, that is, 100 kg G 500-750 gm of seeds are
sufficient for ready compost.

Casing soil:-

The Importance of casing soil would be
to keep the moisture content and exchange of pollutants inside the top layer of
the compost which assists in the correct development of the mycelium. The pH of
this casing soil should be 7.5-7.8% and have to be free of any disease.

Harvesting of crop:-

Mushroom Pinhead initiation starts after
10-12 days and mushroom crop harvested in 50-60 days. Harvest Mushrooms by
light twisting without bothering the casing soil and when the harvesting is
finished then fill the gap on beds with fresh, sterilized casing material and
spray water. The crop should be harvested before the gills available because
this might diminish its quality and market worth.

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